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The Nuremberg Code
4. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the
'subject matter involved, as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that, before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject, there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person, which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment.
The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.
2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study, that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.
. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
No experiment should be conducted, where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the
'experimental physicians also serve as subjects.
6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian
importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.
The Nuremberg Code 4. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the 'subject matter involved, as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that, before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject, there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person, which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity. 2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study, that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment. . The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury. No experiment should be conducted, where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the 'experimental physicians also serve as subjects. 6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.
The Civil War
History is amongst the most complex and interconnected subjects to exist. While the simplification of events or topics makes it easier for the layman, it removes all of the nuance from the subject.
The Civil War is a prime example of that.
Its far easier to say it was fought over slavery than to actually discuss the nuanced reality of the war.
In truth, a politician had a very different outlook on the war than a Southern sharecropper. I also find it that people lack the ability to separate their current perspective from that of a historical perspective.
In our modern day, we have three benefit of an extremely well defined and storied
Republic. Most major constitutional
questions have already been answered. At the time of the Civil War, many, in both the
Union and the Confederacy, thought secession as totally constitutional. It was simply not a question that had been ever tested. Debated? Certainly. Tested? No.
When you look at it through that lense, it's hard to even call the Confederates traitors.
They believed it was the states right to leave the Union as they please, and if you go by the words of the Founding Fathers, that's still a legitimate question to this day.
Regardless, unfortunately not even general college history classes go over this. Thus, the general populous tends to have beliefs about history that are less than accurate.
Like many things, we would be much better off if people did a little more research about these topics.
The Civil War History is amongst the most complex and interconnected subjects to exist. While the simplification of events or topics makes it easier for the layman, it removes all of the nuance from the subject. The Civil War is a prime example of that. Its far easier to say it was fought over slavery than to actually discuss the nuanced reality of the war. In truth, a politician had a very different outlook on the war than a Southern sharecropper. I also find it that people lack the ability to separate their current perspective from that of a historical perspective. In our modern day, we have three benefit of an extremely well defined and storied Republic. Most major constitutional questions have already been answered. At the time of the Civil War, many, in both the Union and the Confederacy, thought secession as totally constitutional. It was simply not a question that had been ever tested. Debated? Certainly. Tested? No. When you look at it through that lense, it's hard to even call the Confederates traitors. They believed it was the states right to leave the Union as they please, and if you go by the words of the Founding Fathers, that's still a legitimate question to this day. Regardless, unfortunately not even general college history classes go over this. Thus, the general populous tends to have beliefs about history that are less than accurate. Like many things, we would be much better off if people did a little more research about these topics.